This preview introduces revolutionary ideas and heroes from Copernicus to Newton, and links the physics of the heavens and the earth.
15. Conservation of Momentum
What keeps the universe ticking away until the end of time?
27. Beyond the Mechanical Universe
The world of electricity and magnetism, and 20th-century discoveries of relativity and quantum mechanics.
28. Static Electricity
Eighteenth-century electricians knew how to spark the interest of an audience with the principles of static electricity.
29. The Electric Field
Faraday's vision of lines of constant force in space laid the foundation for the modern force field theory.
30. Potential and Capacitance
Franklin proposes a successful theory of the Leyden jar and invents the parallel plate capacitor.
31. Voltage, Energy, and Force
When is electricity dangerous or benign, spectacular or useful?
32. The Electric Battery
Volta invents the electric battery using the internal properties of different metals.
33. Electric Circuits
The work of Wheatstone, Ohm, and Kirchhoff leads to the design and analysis of how current flows.
Gilbert discovered that the earth behaves like a giant magnet. Modern scientists have learned even more.
35. The Magnetic Field
The law of Biot and Sarvart, the force between electric currents, and Ampère's law.
36. Vector Fields and Hydrodynamics
Force fields have definite properties of their own suitable for scientific study.
37. Electromagnetic Induction
The discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831 creates an important technological breakthrough in the generation of electric power.
38. Alternating Current
Electromagnetic induction makes it easy to generate alternating current while transformers make it practical to distribute it over long distances.
39. Maxwell's Equations
Maxwell discovers that displacement current produces electromagnetic waves or light.
Many properties of light are properties of waves, including reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
41. The Michelson-Morley Experiment
In 1887, an exquisitely designed measurement of the earth's motion through the ether results in the most brilliant failure in scientific history.
43. Velocity and Time
Einstein is motivated to perfect the central ideas of physics, resulting in a new understanding of the meaning of space and time.
44. Mass, Momentum, Energy
The new meaning of space and time make it necessary to formulate a new mechanics.
45. Temperature and Gas Laws
Hot discoveries about the behavior of gases make the connection between temperature and heat.
46. Engine of Nature
The Carnot engine, part one, beginning with simple steam engines.
The Carnot engine, part two, with profound implications for the behavior of matter and the flow of time through the universe.